Chapter Two: Theories of Personality


Chapter Two Glossary


INTRODUCTION

This interactive glossary contains definitions to the key terms in each chapter. The "text" link will take you to the section of the interactive chapter guide that explores that concept.



archetypes
To Carl Jung, universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, dreams, and other expressions of the collective unconscious.
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behaviorism
A psychological approach that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior. chapter 2
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collective unconscious
To Carl Jung, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the unconscious images and symbols of all people.
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collectivist cultures
Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes.
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culture
A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community.
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defense mechanisms
Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or keep threatening thoughts from consciousness.
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ego
In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control.
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existential psychology
An approach to psychology that emphasizes free will, responsibility for one's actions, and the inevitable anxieties of existence such as the need to find meaning in life and to accept suffering and death.


fraternal (dizygotic) twins
Twins that develop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperm; they are no more alike genetically than are any other pair of siblings.
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genes
The functional units of heredity; they are composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteins.
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heritability
A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait within a group that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within the group.
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humanistic psychology
A Psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior.
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id
In psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychological energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts.
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identical (monozygotic) twins
Twins that develop when a fertilized egg divides into two parts that develop into separate embryos.
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identification
A process by which the child adopts an adult's standards of morality, values, and beliefs as his or her own; in psychoanalysis, identification with the same-sex parent is said to occur at resolution of the Oedipus complex.

individualist cultures
Cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others.
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intrapsychic
Within the mind (psyche) or self.
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libido
In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id.
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locus of control
A general expectation about whether the results of one's actions are under one's own control (internal locus) or beyond one's control (external locus).

monochronic cultures
Cultures in which time is organized sequentially; schedules and deadlines are valued over people.
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polychronic cultures
Cultures in which time is organized horizontally; people tend to do several things at once and value relationships over schedules.
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object-relations school
A psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships.
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Oedipus complex
In psychoanalysis, a conflict in which a child desires the parent of the other sex and views the same-sex parent as a rival; this is the key issue in the phallic stage of development.
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operant conditioning
The process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur, depending on its consequences.
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personality
A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life.
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projective tests
Psychological tests used to infer a person's motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of the person's interpretations of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli.

psychoanalysis
A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
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psychodynamic theories
Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual.
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reinforcer
A stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows.
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Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective personality test that asks respondents to interpret abstract, symmetrical inkblots.

superego
In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards.
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temperaments
Characteristic styles of responding to the environment that are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate.
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trait
A descriptive characteristic of an individual, assumed to be stable across situations and time.
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unconditional positive regard
To Carl Rogers, love or support given to another person with no conditions attached.
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